Pastel (UK: / pæstl /; US: / pæstɛl /) is a center of art in a form of stick, with reddish color and binder.
Pigs used in pastel are similar to those that are used to produce all kinds of colorful materials, including
fatty colors; The binder is a neutral hue with less saturation. The color effects of pastels are almost
natural to natural color than that of any other process.
Publishers have been used by artists since the Renaissance, and gained great popularity in the 18th
century, when many famous artists made a modern-day basis.
A pastel art used is called pastel (or pastel drawing or pastel painting). Pastel used as a verb meaning to
produce artwork and pastels; as an illustration means the color of color.
Side sticks or crayons include red color powder with binder. The actual composition and characteristics
of the individual pastel stick depend on the type of pastel and type and volume of the binder used. It
also differs from a personal manufacturer.
The dry pastels use historic ingredients such as arabic gum and gum tragacanth. Methyl cellulose was
founded as a binder in the twentieth century. Often the chalk or gypsum is present. They are available at
different bridges of hardness, lightweight straps closed on paper. Some pastel products use a pumice on
a binder to clear the paper and to create more tooth.
Old dry media can be divided as follows:
• Pastels of soil: This is the most used form of pastel. Sticks have a large part of the color and under the
binder, resulting in light colors. The artwork can be easily accessible and integrated, but it creates a high
level of dust. Finishing sketches made by soft pastels require protection, either under the glass or
sprinkling and fixative to prevent smudging; hairspray also works, although caution should be taken, as
the adjustment may affect the color or texture of the drawing. White chalk can be used as filling in
producing colorful and bright hues with more light.
•Lightweight Workers: These are manufactured at a low level of binder in a flat compact (similar to
some makeup) and used with a special Soft micropore sponge tool. No liquid is involved. The 21st
Century discoveries, Pan Pastels can be used for painting or mixing with sticks and sticks.
• Hard pastels: These have a large portion of binder and thin colors, producing suitable drawing material
for good information. These can be used with other pastels for drawing notes and adding accents. Hard
pastels are used to create an original sketching out of the structure. However, the colors are less brilliant
and are available at a small scale with soft pastels.
•Pastel pencils: These are pencil and pastel leadership. They are important to add positive information.
In addition, pastels use different formats to formulate:
•Oil oils: These have solid colors, buttery and sharp colors. They are bulk and fill the grain of paper and
it's hard to combine better than soft pastels, but they do not need to fixative. They can spread on the
surface of the work by crushing and turpentine.
• Pastel-based water: These are similar to soft pastels, but they have a portion of soluble water, such as
polyethylene glycol. This allows the color to be thin out even, half-transparent consistent with the use of
wash water. Water soluble pastels are carried out in many types of hues in severe colors. They have the
advantage of facilitating mixing and combining hues, due to their hygiene, and allowing different tint
effects depending on the amount of water used by the brush on the surface of the work.
There was a discussion in the genres of art as exactly as the pastel. The pastel organization in the UK
(pastel community) says the following are an acceptable media for its exhibition: "Publishers, including
Oil, Coal, Pencil, Conté, Sanguine, or dry media ". Emphasis seems to be on "dry media" but the debate
To create hard and smooth pastels, the colors are subjected to water and gum binder and then rolled or
inserted into sticks. The name "pastel" comes from Latin Latin, Latin, Latin, from Latin Latin, Latin.
French word pastel first appeared in 1662.
Many products produce color, a natural color that shines dark, from red to almost white by combining a
different amount of chalk. This colorful and chalk mixture is the origin of the word "pastel" in the sense
of "colorful" as used in cosmetic and fashionable stores.
Pastel is made by allowing the sticks to move on the abrasive ground, leaving the colors on paper grain,
sand board, canvas etc. When fully covered with pastel, the work is called pastel painting; when not, a
pattern of pastel or drawing. An old, medium-made painting that has the highest color collection reflects
the light without desperation of darkness, allowing many colors to be filled.
Pastel supports the help of giving the pastel "tooth" to focus and hold pigment in place. Supports
• put paper (eg Ingres, Canson Mi Teintes)
• Protective support (e.g. with lower surface pumice, marble dust, or marble)
• velor paper (eg Hannemühle Pastellpapier Velor) suitable for use with soft pastels is part of synthetic
fibers linked to free-acid support.
Protection of pastel artworks
Authors can be used to create a permanent artwork if an artist meets the correct memory issues. This
•Only Easter-colored Easter is used. If not protected by the color binder in pastels it is especially
dangerous to light. An ancient paint painting that changes the color or sound during the light is
experiencing problems similar to gouache paintings using the same color.
• Functions are performed on acidic storage quality. Historically some work has been done with the help
that is now very volatile and rather than color support is required to be protected under the mirror and
far from the light.
• The work is well placed and built under the glass so that the glass does not take the sketch. This leads
to deterioration associated with environmental risks such as air quality, humidity, coconut problems
associated with condensation and smudging.
• Other artists protect their finished pieces by breaking the fixative. Pastel fixtures are an aerosol
varnish that can be used to help strengthen the small charcoal or pastel particles in painting or drawing.
It can not prevent rotation completely and to brighten and brighten the red and pure colors of pastels. It
is also poisonous, so it requires careful use. Use of hairspray as a general fixative is not recommended if
it is not free acids and therefore can damage the artwork for a long time. Traditional modifications will
For these reasons, some pastelists avoid the use of fixative except in case where Pastel has been
overworked so that the face will no longer hold Pastel. Fixing to restore "tooth" and more pastel can be
used over. It's the face of paintings associated with pastels, not fixative. Abrasive helps to avoid or
reduce the need to apply more in this way. SpectraFix, a modern casing fixing is available premixed in
bottle bottles bottle or as careful that it mixes with alcohol, it is not poisonous and it does not dark or
red pastel colors. However, SpectraFix takes advantage of the use of a pumps instead of spray
medication. It's easy to use SpectraFix very much and leave liquid puddles that can delete color sections;
it also takes longer to dry more than conventional spray fixatives between light layers.
Glassine (paper) is used by artists to protect designs stored or shipped. Other good books of pastel
magazines also include glasses for different pages.
Pastel techniques may be challenging because they are blended and directly connected to the work
surface, and in contrast to color, the color can not be measured on the palette before using the face. Old
errors can not be covered how the painting method can be pulled out. Experimental and pastel
experiments in order to learn different techniques give the user the best command on a bigger
Authors have other similar techniques and painting, such as combining, masking, creating color layers,
adding accents and identifying them, and shaving them. One way is the attitude of pastors and diagrams
such as charcoal and leadership, for example, refusal and spread, and distribution. Another technique is
special for pastel.
• Causes of color: use of colored face to generate effect such as reducing the speed of the pastel, or the
• Fresh drying: a large area vaccine using the broad side of the pastel rod. Cotton ball, paper fabric, or
brush can be used to propagate the colors more gently and naturally.
• Time: lift the color from the area by using a burning tool or other tool.
Impasto: pastel was used significantly to produce discernible texture or aid
• Basics of the Scriptures: texture of paper or soft texture to create a effect, the technique is also
used in water painting
Health and safety hazards
Preachers are medium and dry dust, which can cause respiratory effects. More specifically, pastels
use similar colors and artists, many of which are poisonous. For example, having a color of
cadmium, which is usually yellow, orange, and reds, can lead to cadmium poisoning. Pastel artists,
who use the color without a binder of powerful painting, are affected by the poisonous. For this
reason, many modern pastels are used for alternatives to cadmium, chromium, and other toxic
colors, with traditional color names.
Pastel art in art history
The production of pastels dates from the 15th century. The pastel group was named by Leonardo da
Vinci, who studied from French artist Jean Perréal after the artist's arrival in Milan in 1499. At times
Pastel was used as a study of artists and artists in the 16th century, especially Federico Barocci. The
first French artist to specialize in ancient images is Joseph Vivien.
In the middle of the 18th century it became a model of paintings, sometimes in combination with
gouache. Pastel was important for artists such as Jean-Baptiste Perronneau, Maurice Quentin of La
Tour (who did not have any oil), and Rosalba Carriera. Pastel still painting with pictures of Jean-
Baptiste-Siméon Chardin is very fond of, such as the work of French-French artist Jean-Étienne
Liotard. In the 18th century the best-known British UK was John Russell. In Colonial America, John
Singleton Copley used regular pastel for photography.
In France, the pastel was temporarily not recommended during and after the Revolution, as
medieval was defined by the cruelty of Ancien Régime. In the middle of the 19th century, French
artists such as Eugène Delacroix and Jean-François Millet were making great use of pastel. Their
maidservant Édouard Manet built several pictures on the pastel on a canvas, an unusual land for the
middle. Edgar Degas was an archaeologist in the pastel, and he used force almost expressionist after
1885, when it became its core. Odilon Redon gave a great body of work in pastel.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler produced a multitude of pastels all over the year 1880, including the
work of associating with Venice, and this could have a central role in the United States. In particular,
he showed how the stroke needed to motivate place or space. Mary Cassatt, a US artist working in
France, set up artists and pastors for her friends in Philadelphia and Washington.
According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art History: The nineteenth century of the American
[Among American artists] and many more photographs at the same time, the most effective form of
pastel writing was the Cassatt of Europe, where he had worked closely in the middle with his
counselor Edgar Degas and had long been captured during the generation as he was revealed in
mom play with baby.
On the East Coast of the United States, the Society of Painters in Pastel was founded in 1883 by
William Merritt Chase, Robert Blum, and others. The former writers, led by Leon Dabo, were
organized in New York at the end of 1910 and included among them Hawarett Shinn and Arthur
Bowen Davies. On the West American American artist and influential teacher Pedro Joseph de
Lemos, former director of the San Francisco Art Institute and the Director of the Stanford University
and Art Gallery, suggested pastels in the regional exhibition. From 1919 of Lemos publish a series of
articles on "painting" and pastels, which included innovations such as allowing the light size on the
lesson to determine the different colors of paper set up and the use of special optics for making "a
sketch" In urban and rural environments. These nights, often called "dreams" in the media, were
handled by the French Symbolism, and especially Odilon Redon.
Loved writers have been recommended by many modern artists because of the wider color of color.
Popular modern artists who have worked very well in pastel are Fernando Botero, Francesco
Clemente, Daniel Greene, Wolf Kahn, and R. B. Kitaj.